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1. Author

          It was the custom in the first century to begin a letter by identifying the author. Paul begins most of his epistles in this way. "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ" is the phrase that beings this letter. There is little dispute that this letter is genuine. The vocabulary, style of writing and the kind of arguments made are Pauline in character.

2. Date

          It is not easy to determine an exact date for the letter to Ephesus. It was written at a time when Paul was a prisoner (6:20), so it had to be written from either Caesera or Rome. It is the general view of most writers that it came from Rome. Tychicus was the messenger (6:21) who carried both this letter and the letter to the Colossians (Col. 4:7).

          This information leads to a date between 60 and 64, with 62 or 63 being most likely.

3. Outline

          1. DOCTRINE: OUR RICHES IN CHRIST - Chapters 1-3

                    A. Our spiritual possessions in Christ - 1:1-14

                              1. From the Father - 1:4-6

                              2. From the Son - 1:7-12

                              3. From the Spirit - 1:13-14

                    First prayer - for enlightenment - 1:15-23

                    B. Our spiritual position in Christ - 2:1-22

                              1. Raised and seated on the throne - 2:1-10

                              2. Reconciled and set into the temple - 2:11-22

                    Second prayer - for enablement - 3:1-21


          2. DUTY: OUR RESPONSIBILITIES IN CHRIST - Chapters 4-6

                    A. Walk in unity - 4:1-16

                    B. Walk in purity - 4:16 - 5:17

                              1. Walk not an other Gentiles - 4:17-32

                              2. Walk in love - 5:1-6

                              3. Walk as children of light - 5:7-14

                              4. Walk carefully - 5:16-17

                    C. Walk in harmony - 5:18 - 6:9

                              1. Husbands and wives - 5:18-33

                              2. Parents and children - 6:1-4

                              3. Masters and servants - 6:5-9

                    D. Walk in victory - 6:10-24

4. Theme

          The believer in Christ has the RICHES of "all spiritual blessings" (1:3) and the RESPONSIBILITY to "walk worthy" (4:1) of our life in Christ.

5. Location

          The city of Ephesus is located on the western edge of modern Turkey. The ancient city was a "safe port" for ships. The city sat on a long harbor (about 4 miles inland) which was protected by mountains on each side.

          It was a great city for commercial trade, a shipping port and educational center. The facade of the great library still stands. The greatest distinction at the time of Paul was the temple of Diana. This temple was known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

          The city has not been inhabited since the fourth century when a plague broke out and the city was wiped out. Even though there are several earthquakes each year in this area, many of the magnificient buildings remain - the library, the temple of Diana, the large theater, and the marketplace.

6. Plan of Study

          I have developed an outline of material on the book of Ephesians with key words missing. As we study this material, you will want to "fill in the blanks". I realize that some of these blanks will be difficult to know what I had in mind. You will have to come to class to find out. Most of the blanks are clear and can be filled in from a study of the book of Ephesians.

          I will be moving directly through the text. I will not skip around. If one blank is not found, move on to the next one. You will know that the missing blank is located between the question that preceded it and the one that followed it.




          The author of this letter is ___________.  He is an apostle. The word apostle means ____________________. He states that he is not an apostle by his own choice. He is an apostle by the will of _________.  The letter is addressed to the _____________ at Ephesus. It is also addressed to the _______________ in Christ Jesus.

          "____________ and ____________" was a common form of greeting. The greeting was given a spiritual emphasis by showing that these blessings come from God our ______________ and from ___________________.

          God is to be ___________________ because:

                    A. He is the ________________ of Jesus Christ.

                    B. He has given us ___________ spiriutal _______________.

                    C. These are located in ________________ places.

                    D. These places are found only in _____________.

          God has ______________ us who believe to be in __________. God made this decision ____________ the creation. The reason for this decision is that we should be __________ and without __________. We should show our ________ as we live before God.

          Paul now introduces the subject of ______________________. The word come from two words. _______, means before, ahead or in front of. The second part of this word, _____________, means to decide, determine, make up one's mind.


          NOTE: Some hold to a view that God makes all the decisions and choices for us. They believe that our ________________ is already decided and there is nothing that we can do to change this. This is known as _______________ predestination.

          Paul speaks of _________ predestination. God has predestinated _____. What has God __________ before the creation? He decided:

                    A. The ___________ will be the family of God.

                    B. Each member will be ______________ by God.

                    C. The church will be composed of all ____________ children.

All that God does is ________________ to His will. God is _________. He will not make decisions that will __________ us. God is ________. His decisions will always be consistent with that love.

          Instead of questioning God's decision, we need to offer ___________ to the ____________ of his grace. We are saved by ___________. (2:5) It is through his grace that we are ______________. This is only possible through the salvation work of the ______________ Jesus, the Son of God.

          It is in Christ that we have _______________ through his __________. It is only possible for us to have ______________ of sins if we are in ___________. Such blessings come from the ____________ of his grace.

          Christ has _______________ toward us all the riches of heaven. This includes ____________ and _______________.

          NOTE: Both of these are attributes of God. They are also things that should characterize the child of God. Wisdom is the ability to __________ knowledge and made it practical and useful. Prudence is the special ability to _______________.


          God does not keep his decision a _____________. He has ____________ it to us. It was a _______________. The word "mystery" is often used of some-thing that is beyond ___________ comprehension until it is _______________. It was God's good ________________ to reveal it to us.


          In the last of the three __________________.

          In a ___________ when God was fully prepared.

          God will ____________ together in __________.

          All the ____________ of God will be in ____________, both those in __________ and those on __________________.

          In Christ we have the __________________ of all that belongs to God. This is part of what God decided would fit his _______________. He predestined that the _____________ would be the family of God. As members of the __________, we inherit all that God has placed in _____________.

          Why did God decide to do this? Answer: God chose to bless the church so that we would offer our ______________ of his glory. God decided to __________ into his family (the _____________) all who first ____________ in Christ.

          Through __________ in Christ we heard the __________. Truth is used interchangeably with ___________. To obey the _____________ is the same as obeying the ________. After we _________________ and obeyed the truth we were __________ with the Holy Spirit. This is not a command. This is a ____________. The ________ is proof of the item being _________.

          The presence of the _____________ is an _________ of our inheritance. It is temporary until we are __________ and the purchased ____________ is ours.

          Paul heard of the _______ of the Ephesians and their ______ for all ________. He offered ________ to God.

          Paul remembered them _______. He did not _______ to give thanks and to mention them in his __________. This is called _______________ prayer. Intercession should be made in our prayers for several groups of people. Name several for whom we should pray.

__________________  __________________  __________________

__________________  __________________  __________________

__________________  __________________  __________________

          What should be say in our _________ of intercession? Paul gives us some suggestions. PRAY FOR:

          1. God to give us a spirit of _________.

          2. A _____________ of knowledge.

          3. Knowledge of _________.

          4. Your eyes of _________________ to be enlightened.

          5. That you may know the ______ of his calling. (See 4:4)

          6. The _________ of his glory.

          7. The ______________ of the saints.

          8. Appreciation of the _______ of God in us.

          9. God's _________ power to ______ in our lives.

          It was by this mighty __________ that God raised Christ from the dead. Christ is now set at the _______ ______ of God.

          God's power is far ________ all _______________, power, might, and ___________. All of these words refer to civil and temporal powers.

          NOTE: The greatest power shortage is not electricy or oil and gas. It is in our ___________ lives. Will Paul's prayer be answered in your life?       God has power over ____ ________. This means that all things are under his ______. He has made Christ the ______ of all things. This headship includes the ________ which is his ______. The church is the __________ of God who fills all in all.




          Before we can fully understand the _________ we have in Christ, we must understand our condition of our __________ without Christ.

          God has ____________ us. This word means that God has made us _______ from the dead. We were dead in _____________ and sins.

Define: Trespass ___________________________________________

Define: Sin ________________________________________________

          Before you became a Christian, you ________ in sin. We were just following the _________ of this ________. We fall in line with the _________ of the power of the air. This refers to _______. He is a spirit that _____ works in children of ________________.

          When we lived in sin we had our _______________ in the _______ of the flesh. This describes more than what we _____. It refers to our ____________. When we live after the flesh we seek to fulfill the desires of both our flesh and ______. Paul teaches that we are, by _________, the children of ________.

          NOTE: The words "by nature" do NOT refer to __________ instinct, __________ code or some other innate trait. This phrase means "long standing __________ or habit." We do many things by __________, without thinking, just by long practice.

          Now that we have a clear picture of our ______, let us look at our __________ situation. God is ______. He has plenty of _______ and ______ for each of us.

          Even while we were still _______ in sins, God was planning a way for us to be _____________ with Christ. We are saved by ________.

          God has _________ us from the dead and given us a place to _____ together. This is not just a recliner or rocker. This place to be together is a ___________ place in Christ.

          Throughout the Christian _____ God has shown the ____________ riches of his grace. He has shown his __________ toward us through Christ Jesus.

          We are saved by ________ through ________. Salvation can not be gained by our own ability. We do not have power in ____________ to save us. Salvation is a _______ of God.

          Salvation is not accomplished by _______ of merit. If man could save himself, he would ________.

          We are not saved by our own ________. We are the _______________ of God. We were __________ in Christ for the purpose of doing ______ works. This plan is __________ of God. This is how we are to ______.

          Back to the Past: _____________ that you are Gentiles, not Jews. As Gentiles, you are called ___________________, because you were not under the law of Moses. Also remember that _________________ was an act of the flesh and done by ________.

          Before you became a Christian you were:

                    Without _________;

                    __________, not citizens, of _________;

                    Strangers from the ___________ with its promises;

                    Without _______;

                    Without ______ in the world.

          Now that you are a Christian:

                    You are made _______ (close, near) to God;

                    You are saved by the ________ of Christ.

          Jesus is our ________. He was to be the _________ _____ ________. He made _______ (Jew and Gentile) united in _____. He ________ down the ________ of separation between the Jews and Gentiles.

          Jesus _____________ the wall. To abolish means to _________ its power or to nuteralize its force and __________ its ability to harm. This wall was the _________, or cause of dissention between Jews and Gentiles. The wall was the law of __________________ contained in ____________. Purpose: To take the two (_________) and make one ______ person. Result: ________.

          What other purpose was served in the destruction of this wall? He will _____________ both Jew and Gentile to God in one _______. This was accomplished on the ________. This is when the _________ was slain.

          Jesus came and ___________ peace to those ______ off (Gentiles) and to those that are near (Jews).

          HINT: When you see the word "therefore" you need to look back and see "what it is there for." Here is the conclusion or summary of what has been said.

          We are not strangers or ______________. Now we are fellow ___________ with the saints. We are now part of the _____________ of God.

          Our lives have a solid ______________. We are _________ on the foundation of apostles and _____________.


JEWS                               GENTILES

Apostles                 Prophets



          What part have the apostles played in your salvation? _________________


          What role have the prophets filled in saving you? _____________________

________________________________________________________________           How is Jesus the corner stone? __________________________________

          What is the "chief" corner stone? _________________________________

          Jesus is the part of our lives that __________ us together. Without Jesus in this vital role, we could not be the holy __________ which God seeks.

          This temple is the _______________ of God through the _________.




          Paul describes himself as:

                    The ____________ of Jesus Christ

                    For the ____________.

          We are living in the _________________ of the grace of God. A dispensation is a period of _______ given to certain events.

          The ________ which saves has been reveled to Paul to share with others. ______________ means to make known. The grace of God is a ___________ until it is explained. Then we _______________ and have _____________.

          In previous ________, or dispensations, this information was not made known. Through Paul, and the ____________ and ___________, it has been revealed. The work of revelation is a task that belongs to the _________.

          This revealtion is not limited to one nation. The ____________ can:

                    1. Share as __________ - ________.

                    2. Be members of the same ________.

                    3. Partake of the ____________ in Christ.

          This is why Paul was made a ____________. He had a _______ to share the grace of God. This work was given by the _____________ working of God's _________.

          Paul demonstrates his ____________ by realizing that he is the ________ of all saints. His ability is not from himself. It was _________ to him from God. His work: Preach to the ___________. His message: The unsearchable _________ of Christ.

          He wanted to help all men see the _____________ of the ___________. Since the ______________ of the world, this mystery has been hidden. God, who __________ all things, knew what the plan of salvation was.

          It was the __________ of God to make known the ____________ wisdom of God through the __________. God wanted all to know:

                    1. ___________________.

                    2. Powers in _____________ places.

                    3. To both Jews and _____________.

          NOTE: The only _________________ authorized to preach the gospel of grace is the church. All evangelism is to be done thorugh the church.

          This is part of the ___________ of God. This plan was not a spur-of-the-moment decision. It was in the __________ plan. God had already decided to send Jesus Christ.

          In Christ we have many rich blessings, including:

                    1. ______________.

                    2. ___________.

                    3. ______________.

                    4. And _________.

          With all these _____________, we should not ________. These _________________ should not cause our faith to be weak.

          Paul explains his reason for rejoicing. He states that there is a ________. He describes worship as bowing the _________.

          The __________ is a family. Families wear the _______ of the Father. This is the name of all in the ___________ of God, both those in __________ and those on _________.

          Our Father is ______. He will __________ to us:

                    1. The riches of his _________.

                    2. Strengthened with __________.

                    3. Indwelling of his ____________.

                    4. An __________ _______ of strength.

          To those who are in God's family, _________ dwells in our hearts. This dwelling is by ________. The purpose of this indwelling is two-fold.

                    1. That we might be ____________.

                    2. That we might be ____________ in love.

          Paul prays that we might be able to _______________ the four directions of love.

                    1. _____________.                     2. _______________.

                    3. _____________.                     4. _______________.

          Also, we must _______ the love of Christ. His love ___________ our knowledge. Christians will be ___________ with the fulness of God.

          Here is a __________________, a closing prayer. God is able to:

                    1. ____________.                       2. _____________.

                    3. ________________.                4. _____________.

                    5. All we ________.                     6. All we __________.

All of this is done _____________ to the power that is at _______ in us.

          All our praise and ________ belong to God. This praise is to be found in the _________. This is the plan of God for all ________. Even when the _________ ends, the glory of God will continue.




          Even though Paul is a ______________, he still urges us to walk in our __________. This walk must be a ____________ one.

          What does it mean to walk worthy? Paul gives us some words to consider:

                    1. __________________.            2. _______________.

                    3. __________________.            4. _______________.

                    5. In _____________.

          We must ______________ to keep the ________ of the Spirit. This can only be done in a bond of _________.

          Paul now lists seven "Ones" of the Christian.

                    1. One __________.

                    2. One __________.

                    3. One __________ of our calling.

                    4. One __________.

                    5. One __________.

                    6. One _____________.

                    7. One _______ and Father of all.

          Each of us have been __________ grace and speical gifts. The ______________ of these gifts is ________________ to the gift of Christ.

          Paul proves that Christ __________ gifts by the quote from Psalm 68:19. Christ led into ______________ the captives of sin and death. As conqueror, in triumph over death, Jesus gives does not seek gifts, he __________ to men.

          Paul explains this passage and applies it to Christ, who first ______________ into the earth and _____________ back to heaven.

          This one who ______________ is the same one who is also ____________ far above all heavens. He __________ all things.

          God has given many different gifts. Some were temporary:

          1. _____________.           2. ______________.

          Other gifts are for the church of all ages.

          1. _______________.        2. __________.       3. ____________.

          NOTE: These are all "__________" in the church. They are all positions of leadership and authority. Evangelists are to speak and rebuke with all _____________. (Titus 2:15) Pastors are also called __________ and bishops in the New Testament. A pastor is a ______________ who feeds the flock and oversees it. Christians are commanded to be _____________.

          There are three reasons for these offices in the church. People are set in these positions:

                    1. For the ______________ of the saints.

                    2. For the __________ of the ministry.

                    3. For the _____________ of the body of Christ.

          How long should these positions in the church last? Paul says they should be active ________ -

                    1. We all come to the __________ of the faith.

                    2. We have the _____________ of the Son of God.

                    3. We have become the __________ man.

                    4. We _____________ up to the __________ of the fulness of Christ.

                    5. We are no longer ____________.

                    6. We are not ____________ to and fro.

                    7. We are not carried by every __________ of doctrine.

                    8. We are not tricked by cunning ______________.

                    9. We are stable and not _____________.

                    10. We speak the __________ in love.

                    11. We __________ up.

          The church must function as a __________. All must fit and __________ together. Every __________ must do the job given it. Every part must work to help the body _____________. While the physical body must grow in size, the body of Christ must grow in ______________ itself.

          We should not walk as other _____________ walk. They walk in the __________ of their mind.

          They walk with their understanding _____________. They are _____________ from the life of God. They are living in _____________. They have a ______________ of heart.

          They have lost the ability to feel guilt or remorse. They are past ____________. Their lives are __________ over to:

                    1. __________________.

                    2. _______________.

                    3. _______________.

          This is not how you have ____________ to walk in Christ.

          Have you __________ Christ? Have you been __________ by him? Do you know that the __________ is in Jesus?

          If the answer is YES, then, put off the old man of your former ___________________. This old man is ______________ with ______________ lusts.

          We need to be ____________ in the spirit of our __________.

          We must put on the __________ man. This man is created in __________________ and true ______________.

          What must we put away? First we will list them.

                    1. _____________.

                    2. __________.      

                    3. ____________.

                    4. Corrupt _________________.

                    5. __________ the Holy Spirit.

                    6. ______________.

          The Christian must put away __________. We must speak the __________. We are ______________ of one another.

          We must put away __________ which results in ________. The sun must not go down on our __________.

          When our anger leads to sin, we give place to the __________ in our lives.

          ______________ the property of others is prompted by the greed of the old man. It is not enough to stop stealing. We must do three positive things:

                    1. ___________ with our hands.

                    2. The work must be __________.

                    3. The money earned must be _____________ by giving to those who need it.

          Our speech must be pure. We must not allow ______________ communication to come from our ___________. What we say must be __________. It must __________ the one who hears it. Our words must _____________ grace to the hearers.

          Christians must not ___________ the Holy Spirit. The Spirit has _____________ the will of God to us. If we do not obey the commands in the Bible, the work of the Holy Spirit was in vain. We are ____________ by the Holy Spirit. Do not destroy that seal of approval.

          As we put off the old man, put away all ______________. All forms of ____________ must be put away.

          WHEN GOD ERASES, HE IS GETTING READY TO WRITE. It is not enough to put off the old man and these evil deeds. We must also put on some new behaviors.

          We must be __________ to each other. We must show that we are ____________-________________. We must be able to ____________ each other. We must remember that God has _____________ us because of the work of Christ. We should be able to forgive each other.




          We must not follow the ways of the old man. We must be ______________ of God. He is our Father. We are his _____________.

          We must __________ in love because Christ loved us. He gave himself for us as an _____________. He became the _____________ to God. This sacrifice was acceptable and pleasing to God as a _________-______________ savor.

          Here are some sins that should not __________ be mentioned among Christians.

                    1. _______________.        2. ________________.

                    3. ___________________.

          These are not things that ____________ saints.


          Christians should give ___________. This means that we should avoid sins of the ____________ that do not give thanks. Paul mentions three sins involving our speech.

                    1. ______________.          2. _____________ talking.

                    3. ____________.

          Now he lists some sins of the flesh. These include:

                    1. _________________.              2. _______________ person.

                    3. _____________.                     4. _____________.

          NOTE: A covetous person is also an idolater. These are two separate sins. However, they are found in the same people. Where you find one, you will find the other.

          The people who do such things do not have any part in the _________________ in the kingdom.

          Do not be _____________ with vain words. This list of sins are things that will bring the __________ of God upon the children of _________________.

          WARNING: Do not ____________ with those doing such things.

          We used to walk in _____________. Now we are __________. We should walk as _______________ of light.

          The fruit of the Spirit is:

                    1. _____________. 2. _____________. 3. __________.

          Children of light must __________ what is ______________ to God.

          Children of light do not have fellowship with works of _______________. Such works are not _____________. Our task is to ____________ them.

          It ought to be an embarassment and __________ to speak of such things as are done in ____________.

          When we ____________ these sinful practices, they are brought to the __________. When we make it ____________, it is in the light.

          Christians must be alert and ____________. God says, "If you are __________, arise from the __________. Christ will give you __________."

          As we walk in the light we must walk ___________________. We must not act like __________. We must show _____________ in our lives.

          Paul commands us to _____________ the time. The reason for this command is that the __________ are full of __________.

          We must not act in a manner that is _____________. We must _______________ what the will of the Lord is.

          Walking in the light means that we will not be full of __________. There is always the danger of _____________. We must be _____________ with the Spirit.

          We should praise God for the protection and leading which comes from being full of the Spirit. Our praise to God should also speak to ______________. Our praise can be in the form of: 1. _________.  2. ________.  3. __________ songs. The Christian is to __________ and make _____________ in his heart.

          We should also praise God in prayer. We should be ____________:

                    1. ____________.

                    2. For all __________.

                    3. Unto _________.

                    4. In the __________ of Jesus.

          There are times when we must ____________ to each other. This is called ____________ submission. This submission is done becuase of our __________ (reverence) of Christ.

          NOTE: This verse does not tie in with the previous section. This verse is not talking about how we are to walk. This verse begins the next section of Husband/Wife - Christ/Church relationships.

          In God's plan for the home, the _____________ is the head of the family. Christ is the __________ of the church. He is the ____________ of the body.

          The church is ____________ to Christ in all things. Wives should also be in subjection to their own _____________.

          This position of authority is not one of iron rule. The husband is _______________ to love his wife. This love should be like the love ____________ has for the church. He __________ for it.

          What did Christ's death do for the church?

                    1. He _____________ it.

                    2. He ___________ it.

                    3. He ____________ it with water.

          When Jesus comes for his __________ (the church) he wants it to be:

                    1. A ____________ church.

                    2. Without __________.

                    3. _____________ free.

                    4. __________.

                    5. Without _____________.

          Men should love their __________ with this kind of love. Care for his wife should be similar to the care for his own __________. If a man loves his wife he will love _____________.

          Man does not __________ his own flesh. He gives it _______________. He ____________ it. This is how the __________ feels about the church.

          We are ____________ of Christ's body. We are part of his flesh and __________.

          From the creation this was God's plan. Man should __________ his parents control. He should be ___________ to his wife. These two people should become __________ flesh.

          All of this discussion is a great ____________. Paul will make it clear and plain. Paul is talking about __________ and the __________.

          Everyone should __________ his wife as he loves himself. The wife should ______________ her husband.




          ______________ must obey their parents. Parents must give direction that is in the __________. This is God's plan from the creation and it is __________.

          Children are to __________ their parents. This is the __________ of the ten commandment with a __________.

          The promise: It will be __________ with you. You may live long on the __________.

          ____________ should not provoke their children to __________. Children must be ____________ up in the nurture and ______________ of the Lord.

          ____________ are to obey their ____________ in fleshly matters. There should be fear and _____________. We must seve with _____________ of heart. We must work as though we are working for __________.

          We must not work with ________ service. We should not seek to be men ____________. We are ____________ of Christ. We should do the will of God from our __________.

          We must have a good attitude of mind in doing ____________. Our attitude should be that we are working for the __________, not for men.

          When we render good service to men, we will ____________ from God a reward. This is true for the slave or the __________.

          _____________ must treat servents in the same way that servants are expected to behave toward the master. Masters should forbear _________________. Masters must remember that they have a _____________ in heaven. This master does not have __________ of persons.

          Christians must be __________ in the Lord. This strength comes from the __________ of his might.

          To be ready to serve Christ, we must put on the whole __________ of God. If we have on the armor, we may be ________ to stand against the tricks and ________ of the devil.

          Our struggle is not against __________ and blood. Our fight is against:

                    1. _________________.

                    2. ____________.

                    3. Rulers of ____________ in this world.

                    4. Spiritual ______________ in high places.

          We must have on the __________ armour of God if we are going to _____________ when evil days come. When it is all over, we must be able to __________.

          Stand with the following armor:

                    1. Loins                                      __________

                    2. Breastplate                             __________________

                    3. Feet shod                               ____________ of peace

                    4. Shield                                     __________

                    5. Helmet                                    ______________

                    6. Sword of Spirit                         __________ of God

          The Christian also has a powerful weapon. We can __________.


          NOTE: Pay attention to the "Alls" in this text.

                    1. __________ always.

                    2. All prayer and ______________.

                    3. Watch with all _________________.

                    4. For all __________.

          Paul makes a personal request. When you are praying, pray for _______. Pray that Paul might have _____________ and speak with ____________. Pray that Paul can make known the ____________ of the gospel.

          Paul is an _______________. Even though he is in __________, he still speaks __________. This is how he __________ to speak.

          He wanted them to know how he is doing so he sent _______________ to carry this letter. He is described as a beloved ______________ and a faithful ______________.

          He is being sent so you can know how Paul is doing. He will ____________ their hearts.

          ____________ to the brethren. Love with __________ comes from God and from Jesus Christ.

          Paul closes with a wish for __________ to all who love the Lord in _____________.


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