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Chapter One

In the Fullness of Time


          The Roman Government

1. Universal Law

          A. Like US - Roman law covered all the empire

          B. Each local government could pass laws - as long as they did not overrule the Roman law

          C. Local people could participate in local govt.

          D. No matter - in Rome, Africa, far East, far North - all got equal treatment under the law

2. Coins

3. Highway system

          A. A gold milestone erected in Roman Forum.

          B. All main roads had mile markers.  Measured as distance from Rome.

          C. Five main highways went out from Rome.

          D. Along these roads - (rest stops) - food, lodging, fresh horses, travel information, weather info

          E. Helped - government, industry, spread of gospel

4. Postal system

          A. Government provided transportation of mail to central cities in each province (zip code centers)

          B. Similar systesms were soon set up for delivery to smaller cities off the main routes

5. Pirates removed

6. Peace

          A. Not any wars of conquest

          B. No civil wars

          C. "Pax Romana" - Roman Peace - 50 BC to 70 AD

7. Citzenship

          A. Free born  Acts 22:24-28

          B. Bought - high price


          The Social Order

1. There were rich and poor.

2. No middle-class.

          A. Uneven distribution of wealth

          B. Sought protection against economic pressure

          C. Formed fraternal orders, secret societies, or secret cults

          D. They became blocks of purchasing power

3. Slaves

          A. Indentured slaves - bought and sold

          B. Self-imposed - to pay a debt; provide for family

4. Trade unions, professional trade guilds

          A. Could boycott anyone from being able to buy or sell

          B. Revelation 13:16-17


          Moral conditions

1. Marriage and Divorce

2. Abortions

3. Suicide

4. Wild and frenzied sports

          A. More brutal, bloody (Why do people watch wrestling?)

          B. Began to use slaves and other humans for their sport



1. Idolatry

2. Pagan superstitions

3. Greek mythology - (Romans took Greek stories - edited them to fit their background.)

          A. Mythology = stories to explain the unknown

          B. Creation, Sin, Sun, Moon, Origin of Rome

4. Hundreds of cults - each with their own special god

          A. Cults were not mutually exclusive

          B. Could belong to several at same time

5. Religion had to do with their ability to please and get favors from their gods.

6, Their religion had nothing to do with morals.


          The Mystery Religions

1. We will be discussing these in more detail later.

2. Mystery = calim to have special information about how to please the gods, gain fame, fortune, immortality, etc.



1. Began in Persia

2. 500 B. C.

          A. Same time Judah was there in captivity.

          B. Influence on Persia came form Israel.

3. Good vs. Evil

4. They expected saviors -

          A. Three of them

          B. 1,000 year apart

          C. All would be virgin born

          D. NOTE: Jews expected two (2) saviors.

                    [a] One to be lion King.

                    [b] One to be sacrificial Lamb.

                    [c] Revelation 5:5-6



1. Mithra = god of light

2. Worship of the Sun

3. Later half of the 3rd centruy - quite strong

4. Popular with the army and emperors

5. Called "Sol Invictus" (Invincible Sun)


          Roman Religion

1. Everything centered in the state.

2. Devotion to the state = loyalty to god

3. Criticism of state = treason, blasphemey

4. "gods many and lords many"

5. All religions of the conquered nations were to be tolerated in the Roman Empire

6. Emperor worship - grew, extened to all provinces

          A. Solem duty of every citizen to worship emperor

          B. No one was exempt.

          C. Refusal was high treason - penalty - death.

7. State officials became the system of prieshood.

8. What would you do?

          A. Mental reservation. (Do it, but, I know better.)

          B. Refuse to honor emperor. (Penalty of death.)

          C. Honor both emperor and Jesus. (Eph. 4:5 - One Lord)

9. Remember -

          A. Roman religion was religious, sincere, devout.

          B. Had nothing to do with values, morals, treatment of each other as human beings.


          The Jewish Contribution

1. Synagogues - developed after captivity

          A. Place to gather and read, pray, study.

          B. Greek word = "a gathering together place"

2. Combination of religion and moral values.

          A. Give God worship and praise.

          B. Give man worth, value and respect.

3. Sadducees

          A. Most of the priests, political and social aristocracy were S.

          B. Taught NO resurrection, future reward or punishment.

          C. Taught NO angels or spirit beings, or soul of man.

          D. Claimed freedom of human will.  God could not tell me what is right and what is wrong.

          E. Held that the O. T. = Only infallible rule of faith and practice.

          F. Denied the traditions of the Pharisees.

          G. Lived for this life only.

          H. Most activity was around the Temple.


4. Pharisees

          A. Religious and academic aristocracy were P.j

          B. Taught that soul is immortal; is eternal life.

          C. Believed in angels and spirits; good and bad.

          D. Predestinarians - fatalism.

          E. Joined Oral Law (traditions) to Written Law (Old Testament).

          F. Developed minute laws to regulate all of life.  Man was reduced to a legal machinery.

          G. Salvation was by good works, obey the codes, all externalized.

          H. Most activity was around the synagogues.  They were strong religious and leaders.


5. Essenes

          A. Qumran - city on cliffs of Dead Sea.

          B. Numbered about 4,000.

          C. Extremely ascetic. (Start of hermits and monks.)

                    [a] Strict in their morals.

                    [b] Strict in their dedication to God.

                    [c] Ill. - Two writing desks, pens, wash bowl.


6. Zealots

          A. Pro-Jewish - Anti-Roman

          B. One apostle - Roman tax collector, Matthew

          C. Another - Simon the Zealot

          D. Imagine: (Hitler and a Jew)  (KKK and Black)

          E. A group out of the Pharisees.


          The Greek Heritage

1. Language -

          A. Each culture still had their own language.

          B. All spoke Greek.

          C. Koine (common) Greek.

          D. Legal matters were in Latin (Roman).

2. Greek religion and philosophy

          A. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

          B. Religion was separated from scientific interests.

          C. Individual taste was the sole and final judge of conduct and behavior.



Chapter Two

Historical Evidence Concerning the Life of Jesus



1. Born in 37 A. D.

          [a] Discuss:  A. D. and B. C.

2. Went to Rome - friend of Titus

3. Travelled with Titus when he seiged Jerusalem.

4. Historian - often overstated facts to make Jews look bigger, stronger, better than they really were.



1. Wrote about 100 A.D.



1. Born in 88.

2. Friend of Pliny.



1. Born in 61.

2. Wrote in 111-113.

3. Became governor of Bithynia.  Trajan - emperor.

4. Christianity was already viewed as "criminal."

5. Was detracting from both Jewish and Roman religions.

6. Christians were not to be hunted.  If found, punish them.

7. Only aquitted if they offer sacrifice to emperor.



1. See Scriptures noted in the text book. (pgs. 37-39)

2. Jesus did not exist just as a spiritual figure.

3. Jesus existed as a historical fact.



Chapter Three

The New Testament Church



1. Day of Pentecost.

2. Fifty days after the death of Jesus.

3. 3,000 were baptized.  (Added to the church.)


          Definition of Terms

1. Church = called out

2. Church = singular, not plural, not fractions

3. Church = possesive, belongs to Jesus, purchased it

4. Used in three senses in N. T.

          [a] Church universal

          [b] Church local congregation

          [c] Church assembled for worship


          Church in Prophecy

1. Isaiah 2:2-3

2. Daniel 2:44

3. Joel 2:28-30


          Church in Preparation

1. John the Baptist

2. Matthew 3:3

3. Jesus death and resurrection.

4. His ascension.

5. Waiting in Jerusalem.


          Church in Reality

1. Luke 24:49

2. Acts 1:6-8

3. Acts 2:1-5

4. Acts 2:47 Frist mention of church - in existence


          Basis of Membership

1. Faith

2. Repentance

3. Baptism


          Rapid Growth

1. Acts 4:4  Grew to 5,000 men

2. Acts 5:14 Multitudes were added (men and women)

3. Acts 6:7 Number multiplied


          Early Spread

1. Acts 1:8  Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, all the earth

2. Jerusalem  Acts 5:28

3. Judea Acts 8:1  Scattered to Judea and Samaria

4. Samaria Acts 8:5  Philip preached to the Samaritians

5. All world - began with Cornelius  Acts 11:1 (Gentiles)


          Organization and Government

1. Jerusalem  Acts 15:2  Apostles and elders

2. Acts 11:30 Elders oversight of the funds

3. Acts 14:23 Ordain elders in every church

4. Phil. 1:1  Bishops and Deacons at Philippi

5. Titus 1:5  Appoint elders in every city

6. I Tim. 3:1-13 Qualifications of elders and deacons


          Worship of the Church

1. First day of the week  Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:1-2

2. Five avenues of worship

          a. Sing  b. Pray  c. Give  d. Study  e. Commune


          Manner of Life

1. Sharing  Acts 2:44-45; 4:32-37

2. Morally pure

3. Strong in fellowship  Acts 2:42






Chapter Four

Uninspired Writings, 100 - 150


          Clement of Rome

1. Wrote to Corinth (93-97)

2. Expected to be obeyed - wrote with authority.

3. Read quote Qualben, p. 90


          Ignatius of Antioch

1. Bishop at Antioch

2. Student of John

3. Read quote Qualben, p. 90

4. Transported to Rome, thrown to wild beasts in the Colosseum around 115.


          Epistle of Barnabas

1. Earliest designation of a passage from the gospels, 131

2. So-called Barnabas - Generally thought not Barnabas of Acts 4 and 9.  Someone used his name to gain better acceptance of his writings.

3. Probably wrote from Alexandria.


          The Didache

1. Didache = Greek word for "teachings"

2. Also known as "The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles"

3. Written about 130 - 160.

4. Quote from Walker, p. 40





1. First known celebration of "Easter"

2. Aged bishop of Smyrna

3. Died at the stake about 155.

4. Wrote 110-117 - mentions bishops and deacons and their duties in the church.


          Shepherd of Hermas

1. Wrote shortly after 100.

2. Date his writings between 100 - 140.

3. Speaks of the duties of bishops and deacons.



1. From 100 to 150

2. Apostolic Fathers = those who knew the apostles

3. Not inspired, but give clear pictures of the church.

4. Doctrines remained basically in place.

5. Some superstitions had crept in.  They would gain a deeper hold in the nex generation.



Chapter Five

The Apologists, 185 - 250


1. Apologists = literary defenders of the faith.

2. An apology = a defense, an explaination.

3. Purpose was to answer the false charges against Christians and the church.

4. Their appeal is distintly to intelligence.



1. From Athens

2. Wrote about 125

3. Wrote a general defense of Christianity.

4. There were still eye-witnesses alive.

5. Written to Emperor Hadrian.



1. Also wrote to Hadrian.

2. Written about 125.

3. Also from Athens.


          Justin Martyr

1. Wrote the most famous apology.

2. From Rome.

3. About 153.

4. Read quote from Mattox, p. 69-70.

5. Wrote to Emperors Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius.

6. He also wrote a defense of Christianity against Judaism, "Dialogue with Trypho the Jew"



1. A disciple of Justin.

2. Wrote a combination of the four gospels.

3. He is Assyrian.

4. Wrote "Discourse to the Greek" - vindicates Christianity as superior by comparison to paganism.



1. Bishop of Sardis.

2. Wrote from 169 to 180.

3. Wrote to Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

          A. Stormy period for the church.

          B. Many earthquakes, famines, pestilence.

          C. He blamed the Christians for the problems.

          D. He introduced a spy system and torture.

4. Wrote 18 to 20 papers - "Baptism"; "Lord's Day"



1. Wrote to Emperors Marcus Aurelius, Antonius, Lucius.

2. He was an Athenian.

3. His defense was made about 177.



1. Sixth bishop of Antioch.

2. Wrote about 190.

3. Dealt with existence of God, pagan idolatry and the resurrection.

4. Quoted form both Old and New Testaments.

5. Claimed they were all inspired by the spirit of one God.



The State of the Church



1. Background

          A. Born in 85, in Pontus.

          B. Wealthy ship-owner.

          C. Moved to Rome in 139.  Gave the church a large sum of money (equivalent to $10,000).

          C. Disturbed by problem of suffering.

2. Developed a system of dualism (good and evil, light and dark, God and Satan).

          A. Jehovah of OT was evil, mean, cruel creator.  He was an "eye for eye" God.

          B. Jesus of NT was good, kind and loving.  To be saved you must learn of God from Jesus.  He is the only source of information about God.

3. He sharply attacked all forms of "legalism."

4. He taught that the material world is evil.  Man should live an ascetic life, not eat meat, no sexual relationships.

          A. He tried to call the church to follow his teachings.

          B. He was excommunicated about 144.

5. He formed a seperate church.

          A. He complied a list of approved books. 10 epistles of Paul.  Gospel of Luke.

          B. He deleted all passages about the God of the OT.

          C. Removed all references to Him as Jesus' Father.

          D. This is the first known attempt to form a list of accepted books in the NT.

6. He was "Gnostic" but cut out all the parts that were silliest.

          A. This is the first "major split" in the church.

          B. The split was over legalism. (Same today.)



1. Gnostic = to have knowledge, the knowing ones.

2. Beginning of 2nd century developed the ideas:

          A. Jesus did not really come in the flesh.

          B. Jesus did not have flesh and blood.  He was, while on earth, a heavenly being.

          C. Height of influence was 135 to 160.

3. Based on supernatural wisdom and knowledge.  New converts were brought to an understanding of life, salvation, evil and sin.  It was like many "mystery religions."

          A. It has many elements, many sources, many forms.

          B. Combination of Judiasm, Christianity, paganism, and far eastern oriental mystery religions.

4. Bacic theory was:

          A. How could a perfect god make such an imperfect mankind? Answer:  Made a god just less than Himself.  Only left out one thing.  That god created a god just less than himself, etc.

          B. Each lesser god = emanation from God.

          C. 365 emanations later = status quo (mess we're in).

          D. The only way to get back to God is to retrace the steps.  Pick up the missing elements of our nature that were lost.  These must be picked up in the proper order.

          E. Only the "knowing ones" had the information.  They were the "all wise ones."  For a fee, for a favor, they would help you to re-gain the parts of character and power that were lost in the emanations from God.

          F. We are living in a "material world."  We can't enter heaven in this condition.  We must learn how to leave off the material and regain the spiritual.

4A. Quote from Qulaben, page 75.  "As a system of speculative thought, gnosticism centered about two general questions:  first, the origin of the universe; second, God and his mode of governing the world."

5. The "knowing ones" disagreed among themselves.

          A. It became a power struggle.  Who knew the most?

          B. It became an enterpirse.  Who will sell the cheapest?  Who is most reasonable?

6. Much disagreement about where Jesus fit into this scheme of things.  Was he the first god created?  Was he the last one?  What qualities did he have that we should avoid, drop, not follow?

7. Gnosticism was divided into many sects.  It showed up in a variety of forms.

8. Colossians was written to address this problem.

          A. Jesus came in body form.  (2:9)

          B. In him was ALL wisdom and knowledge. (2:3)

          C. Warning: Don't be fooled.  (2:18-23)

9. Simon Magnus is generally called the founder of this movement.

10. Gnosticism was a great danger to the church.

          A. It removed the God of the OT.

          B. It questioned the diety of Jesus in the NT.

          C. It placed the "knowing ones" above all others in the church.  They had more power than elders.

          D. Salvation was available only to those with money.

          E. The gnostics were the keenest minds in the church.  Therefore, an elite faction developed.

11. Chart of Gnosticism.










          A. The questions is:  Where does Jesus fit into this picture?  Was he a lesser emanation?  Did he bypass all these and come directly from God?

12. Gnosticism influenced Christianity in at least seven ways:

          A. Writing of creeds to explain a teaching.

          B. Dogmas to state terminology and doctrine.

          C. Legalism and elaborate liturgical services.

          D. Asceticism, which lead to monasticism.

          E. Knowing ones were the first "saints."

          F. Predestination - elect vs. non-elect.

          G. Major division in the universal church.



1. Walker, page 51.  "These view denied His real humanity and His actual death."

          A. Was Jesus human or diety?

          B. Did Jesus (God) really die?

          C. "The simplest solution of the Christological problem may well have seemed to some the denial of thee reality of His earthly life altogether.  Christ did, indeed, appear.  He taught his disciples; but all the time as a heavenly being, not one of flesh and blood."

2. Doubt began near the end of the first century.

          A. I John 4:1-3

          B. I John 5:5-6

          C. II John 1:7

          D. I John 2:18; 22-23



1. This movement is strictly Christian in origin.

2. The founder was Montanus, former priest of a heathen temple.  Lived near the border of Mysia and Phrygia.  He claimed he was the "Comforter" promised by Jesus in John 15:26.

3. Basic teaching:

          A. Spiriutal gifts did not end with apostles.

          B. Prophets were just as important as the written word.

4. Impact on the church:

          A. Prophetic teaching = written word.

          B. Prophet would fall into a trance, "rave and begin to babble and utter strange sounds."  (tongue speaking)

          C. 1,000 year reign (post-mill.)  Heave would be here on earth.  It will start in Phyrigia.  The end of the world will be in the near future.

          D. Taught a very ascetic life.  Marriage was a lower plane than singleness.  No pleasures.  Self-denial.

          E. Like gnostics, these prophets were the new spiritual aristocracy.  More powerful than bishops.



Later Apologists



1. Wrote about 185.

2. Said that the apostles had perfect knowledge.  Nothing in the gospels teaches gnostic ideas.

3. Developed early version of "Apostle's Creed."

4. Taught a succession of bishops in the church at Rome from Paul and Peter down to his day.

          A. Peter was not in Rome as late as 60.

          B. Romans 1:11; 15:24

          C. His argument against the gnostics was - go to Ephesus, Smyrna or anywhere.  The teachings there will agree with those in Rome.  Rome has preserved the apostalic succession.  Faithful churches will agree with Rome.


          Clement of Alexandria

1. A catecheticl school (questions and answers) in Alexandria began about 185.  A Stoic philosopher, Pantaenus was its head.

2. Clement was his student and successor at this school about 215.

3. He joined philosophy and religion.  They were handmaids.

          A. Every passage had a double menaing.

          B. There was the literal and the spiritual.

          C. Example: Oil in the lamps = oil - Holy Spirit; lamp - truth; wise virgins - only the pure can have the wisdom of God.

4. He did not teach or care anything about the earthly life of Christ.  He was looking for the philosopical meaning to each event.

5. He did not develop a complete theological system.  His student, Origen did.



1. Born - 150 - 155 of well-to-do parents, in Carthage.

2. He studied law, well read in history and philosophy.  Converted to Christianity about 190-195.

3. He bacame a presbyter at Carthage till his death 222-225.

4. He was the first writer to use Latin.  He was vivid, saterical, and readable.  He would write like an advocate in a court-room.

5. Christianity was a "divine foolishness."  Better, at its weakest points that paganism at its best.

6. He explained the trinity.  Three persons, not just three personalities.

7. Other terms he introduced into the church:

          A. Sacrament.

          B. Substance - (transubstantiation)

          C. Trinity.

8. He taught that there is one God, One Lord, One church, and One chair (episcopate).  The first mention of the idea of a pope was in 185.  This is the second (250).

9. He was ascetic - He taught that:

          A. Martyrdom = 100 fold blessing.

          B. Voluntary celibacy = 60 fold blessing.



1. Lived from about 170 to 235.

2. Creed had grown to include a series of questions.

          A. Early church confessed "Jesus is Lord."

          B. "Do you believe in God the Father Almighty?"

          C. "Do you believe in Jesus Christ the Son of God, who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate and died, and rose the third day living from the dead, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of the Father, and will come again to judge the living and the dead?"

          D. "Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Church, and the resurrection of the flesh?"

          E. Later - more detailed questions.  Long series of questions of doctrine.  Each must be answered with, "I believe" or they could not be baptized.



1. Born 182-185 of Christian parents, (raised in the church).  His father was killed in persecution in 202.

2. He was a student of Clement of Alexandria.

3. Extrem in ascetic life.  He emasculated himself (Matt. 19:12).

4. Spent much of his writings in the area of textual criticism and exegsis.

5. Wrote much about Jesus as the "Logos."

6. He had the greatest influence on the church's teaching and doctrine.  He was the center of discussion up to the coucil of Nicea in 325.




Chapter Six

Through Persecution to Victory, 54 - 313


          Chronology of Persecution

1. The Jews were the first to persecute Christians.

          A. Sadducees.

          B. Pharisees joined them.

          C. King Herod Agrippa - first civil ruler.

                    NOTE: In NT, Herodians, were those who would claim to be Christians and yet bow before the Emporer.

2. Many charges were made against the chruch:

          A. Incest - hugs and kisses for "brothers and sisters" that are not related to each other.  Openly say, "I love you."

          B. Cannibalism - They eat the body of Christ.

          C. Drinking blood - In communion.

          D. Traitor - Loyal to another "kingdom."

          E. Secret Society - They met in secret to avoid persecution.

          F. Homosexuality - Men hugging men.

          G. Athiests - Rejected the worship of the major Roman gods.

3. Slanders, insults, hostile feelings.

4. Economic boycotts - can't buy or sell their goods.

5. Roman Emperors -

          A. Claudius 41-54

          B. Nero 54

                    [1] Rome burned July 19-24, 64.

                    [2] Nero blamed the Christians.

                    [3]Burning alive was the most common death.

          C. Vespasian 69-79  no record of persecution here.

          D. Domititan 81-96

                    [1] Many thought he was the beast (666).

                    [2] Separated Judiasm from Christianity.

                    [3] People died for the crime of being a Christian.  Christianity was against the law.

                    [4] Emperor worship was enforced as a sign of loyalty to the Roman government.

          E. Trajan 98-117

          F. Hadrian 117-138

          G. Marcus Aurelius 161-180

                    [1] Polycarp of Smyrna

                    [2] See text, page 95.

          H. Decius 249-251

                    [1] Developed a plan to identify all Christians.

                    [2] Certificate to all who worship the Emperor.

                    [3] No Certificate = Christians.

          I. Diocletian 284-305

6. Church continued to grow.  10% of Roman empire was Christian by 250.  All insincere were weeded out.  All true Christians were closer to each other.


          Edict of Toleration (April, 311)

1. Galerius knew that further persecution would not help.

2. On his death bed he issued the new law.


          Edict of Milan (313)

1. Constantine reinforced the new policy.

2. Restored church buildings.  Government built them buildings.  Restored land taken by persecution.

3. With the removal of persecution, the church would head into an extended period of perversion, pollution of doctrine and practice.  Corruption of doctrine and corruption of leadership would prevail.



Chapter Seven

Development of the Canon


          Bible Passages

1. I Cor. 14:37

2. Eph. 3:3-4

3. I Cor. 2:9-13


          The Source of Inspired Writings

1. Marcion compiled a canon of sacred books.

          A. Ten epistles of Paul (omitted the pastorals).

          B. Gospel of Luke.

          C. He removed all passages from OT or God as His Father.

2. Barnabas was the the first (c. 131) to refer to a passage from the Gospels as Scripture.

3. Polycarp quoted from Paul (110-117).

4. At the time of Justin (153) all gospels were read in worship and accetped as Scripture.

5. List of accepted books came from Rome (c. 200).

          A. All four gospels and Acts.

          B. Philemon, 3 John and Hebrews were not on the list.

6. Iraneus (c. 185) accepted the entire NT as we know it.  To him, it was scripture as much as the OT.


          Method of Distribution

1. Copies exchanged.

          A. Galatians - addressed to several churches.

          B. Revelation - addressed to seven churches.

          C. Col. 4:16 - to be exchanged with Laodiceans.

2. Peter had read several of Paul's letters.  2 Pet. 3:15

3. Many other letters circulated.  Questions:

          A. Which are authority?

          B. Are the copies accruate?


          Early References to New Testament Letters

1. Marcion (144) compliled a canon of sacred books.

          A. Ten epistles of Paul (omitted the pastorals).

          B. Gospel of Luke.

          C. He removed all passages from OT or God as His Father.

2. Clement (90-100).

3. Origen (250) All 27 books plus 2 later rejected.

4. Eusebius (326) all 27 books.

5. Athanasius (367) 27 books.


          Tests Applied to Questioned Books

1. Does the book claim inspiration?

2. Is it written by an apostle?

3. If not, is its content in keeping with Apostles teaching?

4. Is is accepted by loyal churches (loyal to the Apostolic teaching) and read in their worship services?

5. Does it have the "ring of genuineness"?


          Apocryphal Works

1. Word "apocryphal" means doubtful, questionable.

2. Many letters were frauds.

3. Many letters were written that did not claim to be inspired.  They were written to encourage and exchange ideas and thoughts.

4. Examples:

          A. I Clement 12:1-5  Uses the Phoenix to prove the resurrection. (p. 125)

          B. I Infancy 16:5-15 Stretch a throne to right size. (p. 53-54)

          C. Barnabas - deals with same subject as Hebrews. This is why many think Barnabas wrote Hebrews.

          D. Hermas' Similitude 8:56-59 (p. 245) This passage teaches the idea of purgatory as between heaven and hell.  A middle ground for those who were not real bad but not real good either.



Chapter Eight

Departure from New Testament Pattern, 100 - 325


          Departure of Organization

1. Seven marks in the rise of the bishop.

          A. Clergy vs. laity division.

          B. Bishop = church.  Where is the church?  Where the bishop is, there is the church?

          C. Communion with God is possible only throught the bishop.

          D. Only the bishop can adminster baptism or the Lord's Supper.  Only bishops can teach truth.

          E. Forgiveness only granted when confession is made to a bishop.

          F. The church belonged to the bishop.  It was his charge, his family, his "episcopate" (eldership).

          G. Began to demand certain outward forms and rituals to demonstrate loyalty to the church (bishop).

2. Preachers (doctrinal errors) led to a rise in power of bishops.

3. Rise in power of bishops led to a resistance among preachers.


          Development of a Priesthood

1. Priesthood of all believers became a special priesthood.  Only these special ones could preach, administer baptism or the Lord's Supper.

2. Priests gained power to forgive sins.

3. They became the mediator between God and man.

4. Followed the system of:

          A. Jewish religion - priests, High Priest, etc.

          B. Roman government - senate, governors, emperor, etc.


          Growth of Sects

          Several conflicts arose.  They were caused by [1] Jewish groups,  [2] attempts to harmonize pagan philosphy,  [3] internal conflicts about morality and discipline,  [4] divisions over the ecclesiastical orders,  [5] disputes over doctrine.  With each dispute, a new sect would arise.  Fellowship would be limited to those who agree on the point of conflict.


1. Neoplatonism

          A. Tried to harmonize paganism and Christianity.

          B. Founded in 241 by Ammonius Saccas of Alexandria.

          C. It became a substitute for Christiaity.

          D. Panthiestic, mystical interpretation of thoughts.

          E. Ascetic in morals.

          F. Salvation was viewed as the rise of the body in purity to meet the soul of God.

2. Manichaeism

          A. Founded by Mani (216-276) of Persia.

          B. Preached in Babylon.

          C. Was martyred in 276.

          D. He combined Zorastarism, Buddhism, Judaism and Christianity.

          E. Salvation was based on the right knowledge of man's true nature and the desire to return to the realm of light.

          F. Very ascetic, rejected all that belonged to the sphere of darkness, esp. physical appitites and desires.

          G. The carnal ones, could share in salvation by helping with the material needs of the spirituals.

3. The Ebionites

          A. Judaizing of Christianity.

          B. Jesus was the son of Mary and Joseph.

          C. Said he would come again to set up his kingdom.

          D.Hebrew word "ebion" meaning poor, humble, oppressed.

          E. Christianity was degraded to the level of Judaism.  The law of Moses was binding on all people.  All must observe the ceremonial law to be saved.

4. Monarchianism

          A. Tertullian named the movement Monarchianism because the asserted the unity of God.

          B. They could not accept the trinity (three gods).

          C. They believed in Jehovah only.

          D. Two branches:

                    [1] Jesus was the adopted son of God.

                    [2] Jesus was a temporary manifestation of God.

          E. They argued that if there are three gods, the heathens would be right in worshipping many gods.

          F. Taught that Christ was the Father himself, and that the Father Himself of born and suffered and died.

          G. Tertullian wrote, "He drove out prophecy and introduced heresy.  He put to flight the Holy Spirit and crucified the Father."


5. Donatists

          A. Under the persecution of Diocletian, many had left the chruch, worshipped the emperor.

          B. When the persecution ended, some of these wanted to repent and return to the church.

          C. In 313, (Edict of Milan), Donatus the Great, bishop of Carthage, said that these had comitted the unpardon-able sin.  They could not return to the church.

          D. They split from the church and continued to develop a list of "deadly sins."


Further Departure in Doctrine



1. Called the "Chiliastic Controversy."  Chilias is Greek for thousand.  Latin is mille.

2. Many early Christians believed in the immediate coming of Christ.

3. They were, what we would call "post millennialists"

          A. Amillennialists = 1,000 yrs. - Christian Age.

          B. Post-millennialists = peace will last for 1,000 years then the coming.  The second coming will be at the end (post) the 1,000 years.

          C. Pre-millennialists = Chirst will come (pre) before the 1,000 year reign of the kingdom.

4. Many early writers taught this doctrine, but did not believe it necessary to the faith.  "If it happens, it happens.  If not, nothing changes."


          Original Sin and Baptism

1. From the first, baptism was regarded as indespensable.

2. Only adults were baptized until late in the second century.  The first mention of an infant being baptized is 185.

3. Method of baptism was immersion.

4. By the time of Tertullian, an elaborate ritual had developed.

          A. Renounce the devil.

          B. Triple immersion - Father, Son, Holy Spirit

          C. Drink a mixture of milk and honey. (New-born babe)

          D. Anointing with oil, laying on of hands.

          E. Only administered by a priest or bishop.

5. Original Sin came first.

          A. Infant baptism had to follow.

          B. Original Sin taught that a baby was born lost, doomed to hell.  The infant had to be baptized.

          C. Sprinkling followed because of the danger of immersing an infant.


Departure in Manner of Life


          Asceticism and Celibacy

1. Monasticism has two roots:

          A. Belief that the world is incurably evil.

          B. Belief that the most holy men are those who do the hardest things for conscience's sake.

2. The first hermit to gain fame was Antonius (St. Anthony).

          A. Born in Memphis, Egypt about 250.

          B. From age 20 to 106 years of age, lived in seclusion.

          C. The became popular.  Formed associations (cloisters).  The first cloister was formed in 335.

3. Marriage was allowed to the weak who could not control their desires.

4. All that was found to give pleasure - taste, touch, smell, sight - was considered of the devil.

          A. Wear plain brown or black robes.

          B. Eat bland food.  Live in desert places.  See no beauty of music or art.

          C. Col. 3:20-23 (Touch not, taste not, handle not.)

          D. Some substituted water for wine in Lord's Supper, because wine would taste good.

          E. Even today, we do not use salt on the bread. Why?  Might call attention to taste.  Use unsweetened grape juice.  Why?  Same reason.


          Easter Celebration

1. Christians tried to develop a yearly calendar of events.

2. They combined pagan and Jewish festivals.  They were given Christian meaning.  Christmas and Easter.

3. Discussion divided between:

          A. On the Jewish Passover, 14th of Nisan (Mar./Ap.)  Celebrate the resurrection three days later.

          B. Keep it on Sunday, Lord's Day.

4. Eastern churches wanted it on same day of month.

5. Western (Roman) churches wanted it on Sunday.

6. Council of Nicea (325) settled the matter.  First Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox (beginning of spring).  Easter could be anytime between March 21 and April 28 (a 35 day spread).


          Summary of Part Two

1. Throughout all the departures, there were some who resisted the changes.  There were a few who contended for the faith.

2. Worship services became more elaborate.  More ceremony.  More stipulations.  More strict rules.

3. Controvery facing the church today had their roots in the first three centuries.

4. The rest of church history is built on the continued abouses of these matters, and the struggle to resist and oppose them.

5. Change comes slowly.  These changes did not "pop up" suddenly.  They came in very small steps.  Each step was based, not on Scripture, but on the previous steps.

6. Illustrate with Church A seeking advice from Church B.  Since that advice worked out, Church C will come to them for advice.  Soon, Church B, steps in to assist because they know that they will be asked to anyway.  Soon Church B is in control of all the area churches.






Chapter Nine

The Influence of Constantine


          Support of the Church

1. Some matters that changed with Constantine.

          A. Equal rights for Christians.

          B. Clergy exempt from obligations, taxes, etc.

          C. Church could exist, own property, build, etc.

          D. Heathen sacrifices were outlawed.

          E. Sunday work was prohibited.

          F. Roman government built the buildings and paid the clergy their salary.

2. Private houses were too small.  Rented buildings were outgrown.  The church needed special buildings designed for worship.

3. Earliest known church building was built befor the year 200.  Very few existed until the time of Constantine.


          Council of Nicaea

1. Constantine, never been baptized, ust Roman emperor, wanted to see some peace restored.  He called and ran the council.

          A. Called to discuss the nature of Christ.

          B. Easter - set a date for all to follow.

          C. Support for widows and orphans of persecution.

          D. Chose Byzantium as new capital and church center.

                    [1] Bishop of Byzantium - good idea.

                    [2] Bishop of Rome - opposed the idea.

          E. Urged Jerusalem to build church buildings.

2. Arius vs. Alexander in Alexandria

          A. Bishop Alexander prached a sermon, "Unity of the Trinity"  Arius, an elder, disagreed with the sermon.

          B. Arius wrote, "We are persecuted because we say that the Son had a beginning."

          C. Alexander believed that the Son has always been.

3. Adoption of the "Articles of Faith"  Later known as the "Apostle's Creed."



Chapter Ten

Growth of the Episcopacy


          Chronological Development

1. With the move to Constantinople (Byzantum) there became five centers of the church.  Metropolitain bishops (Patriarchs) developed at:

          A. Rome

          B. Alexandria

          C. Antioch

          D. Jerusalem

          E. Constantinople

2. Rome (in the West) and Constantinople (in the East) were above ther other three.

3. Authority was now being exercised in a wider territory.

          A. There were more levels to the system.

                    [1] Bishops    [a] Metro.  [b] City  [c] country

                    [2] elders, deacons

                    [3] Sub-orders: [a] arch deacons  [b] head deacon

          B. See Qualbin, p. 66.

3. Follow sequence in text - pages 136-137.


          The Battle of the Bishops

1. A battle for power developed between East and West.

2. Rome had going for it:

          A. Paul and Peter had started it.

          B. Rome was the mother church of much mission activity.

          C. Several Roman bishops has already claimed world-wide power over the entire church.

3. Constantinople was the current capital of the Empire.

          A. John the Faster (588) claimed world bishop.

          B. Gregory I (590) claimed the same for Rome.


Chapter Eleven

The Ecumenical Councils


1. Ecumenical means universal or world-wide.

2. These are also called the seven General Councils.

3. What about councils today?

          A. Acts 15 - Jerusalem Council

          B. They had inspired apostles.

          C. Catholic Church claims to have Apostolic succession, therefore, the same as Acts 15.

4. At this time the church said that the Bishop of Rome (Pope) meeting with a council was exumenical and represented the entire church around the world.


          Nicaea, 325

1. Already discussed this council.  See above.

2. Arianism did not go away.  Still around today.

          A. Jehovah's Witnessess

          B. Oneness Holiness

          C. Unitarianism


          Constantanople, 381

1. Needed a better creed than the Nicene Creed of 325.

2. This revised creed is still called the Nicene Creed.

3. 150 bishops attended, decided that the 318 bishops at Nicea were correct.

4. Dealt with the issue of the Holy Spirit.  Macdonius of Constantinople said that the Holy Spirit was below the Father and the Son.  This made the trinity a dual with a lesser.

5. Said that Christ was human and divine.  Some had so opposed Arianism that they said Jesus was divine only.


          Ephesus, 431

1. To make Jesus more divine, they made Mary the mother of God.  This was not done to exalt Mary, but to show the divinity of Christ.

2. This council said the Jesus was not two different parts joined together in some mechanical way.  Christ had perfect unity in His being and personality.

3. Phrase "Mary, Mother of God" was used from this point on.


          Chalcedon, 451

1. Leo, bishop of Rome, read a paper to define the nature of Christ.

2. The council said, "Peter has spoken through Leo."

3. All were required to say, "Anathema to all who do not confess that the Virgin Mary is the mother of God."

4. Council resotred the bishop of Constantinople to equality with bishop of Rome.


          Constantinople, 553

1. The teaching of Eutychus, that Christ had only one nature did not go away.

2. Known as Monophysitism (mono, one; physis, nature).

3. This council stronly denounced Monophysitism as wrong.  It is known as the council of the "Three Chapters."  It denounced three chapters of the writings of Eutychus.

4. Egypt and Syria resented the council telling them what to believe.  They were antagonistic to the empire and the bishops of the West.


          Constantinople, 680

1. The matter of the nature of Christ was settled, except there was no formual for discipline for those who taught error.

2. As Monophysitism taught that Jesus has only one nature, a theory developed that Christ has only one will (Monotheletism; mono, one; thelma, will).  It was taught that while Christ had two natures, he had only one will.  It he had two wills, he would be two persons.

3. The issue is still around today.  Could Christ have sinned?  If yes, was he God?  If no, was he tempted?

4. The idea that Christ had two wills was sustained.  Those who taught that Christ had one will were condemned.


          Nicaea, 787

1. New issue has been raised.  Icons, pictures, statues.

2. Lew (725) opposed to icons.

3. The Iconoclastic Controversy will split the church; East and West.

4. Relics, bones, hair, body organs, anything that could be claimed once belonged to someone important was sacred.

          A. Like autographed baseballs today.

          B. These relics became sacred.  To be worshipped.

5. Issue was more Biblical in content.

          A. No graven images.

          B. Art, beauty, reminders.

          C. God is in the image, just as Christ is in the Lord's Supper.  Idols were approved based upon the doctrine of transubstantiation.

6. Mohammedanism called the church idolaters in the East.

7. Decision:

          A. Restore the images to their place in the chruch.

          B. Worship belongs to God alone.

          C. Images can be venerated, not worshipped.

          D. They did not define how to venerate w/out worsip.

8. Relics were elevated to high esteem.  Council said, "If any bishop from this time forward is found consecrating a temple without holy relics, he shall be deposed as a transgressor of the ecclesiastical traditions."

9. Some argued that flat pictures, art work and mosaics would be OK.  Statues should not be permitted.

10. St. Basil the Great said, "The honor paid to the image passes on the the prototype."


Chapter Twelve

The Life, Worship, and Doctrine Under Romanism


          Establishment of Catholicity

1. "Catholic" = universal, world-wide

2. As the church spread, it became organized, structured.

3. The concept of the church changed:

          A. NT - 2 or 3 gathered in Jesus name = church

          B. Now - church = people who belong to a bishop.

4. Most Catholic distinctions developed 160 to 190.

5. In 251 there was:

          A. Cornelius, Bishop of Rome

          B. Major orders - 46 presbyters, 7 deacons

          C. Minor orders - 7 sub-deacons, 42 acolytes, 52 exorcists, readers, janitors (sergent at arms).



1. NT = priesthood of all believers

          A. I Peter 2:9

          B. Revelation 1:5-6

2. Soon, only priests could administer the sacrements.

          A. Early - only two baptism and Lord's Supper

          B. Later - added 5 more -- Confirmation, Extreme unction, Penance, Ordination, Marriage

          C. NOTE: All seven = sources of income to church

3. Clergy were elevated to positions of mediator between God and man.  See I Tim. 2:5

4. Canon law was organized, systemized, restated as equal to Bible in power and force.



1. Baptism was taught as necessary to salvation.

2. Not baptized = lost forever.

          A. Don't take a chance on losing your child.

          B. Baptize them soon after birth.

3. Doctrine of Original Sin came later.

          A. Infant baptism occured as soon as 185.

          B. Sprinkling came as less dangerour to infants.

4. Elaborate ceremony developed.

5. Was later combined with confirmation.

6. Great discussion c.250 re: Baptism by a heritic.

          A. Was such a baptism valid?

          B. Must one be baptized by an ordained clergy?


          The Lord's Supper

1. LS became a sacrifice (mass).  Mass became focus of service rather than the sermon.  NOTE: Today - LS is most important part of worship.  True?

          A. LS is repetition of atoning sacrifice

          B. Priest prayed over the elements - they changed substance.

2. Called the Eucharist (Greek for thanks)

3. Since wine became real blood of Christ; stop people from drinking it because:

          A. Wrong to drink blood - but, priest would drink it.

          B. Might spill a drop.

          C. Priest would place bread on their tongue - catch crumbs. (Might trample under foot the Son of God.)


          Increase of Sacraments

1. Penance was the first to rise.

          A. Even today - "We kill our Wounded"

          B. Weep, wail, pray, fast, pay, until debt paid.

          C. Who decided how much was enough?

2. Each sacrament has two parts.

          A. Form - spiritual purpose, ceremony, ritual

          B. Matter - material used, changed to spiritual use

3. The administrator must convey to the believer the grace of Christ through the sacrament.


          Instrumental Music Introduced

1. Singing in first 10 centuries was homophonic.

2. church singing was congregational.

3. Singing moved to the choir of priests.  Most of a Mass today is sung by the priest.

4. Instruments were not used until the 8th century.



1. Ascetic life, self-denial, no marriage.

2. To survive, they formed groups, monastaries, convents.

3. Many lived in caves, total seclusion.  Some took a vow of silence.  No talking to each other.

4. First monastary formed in 340.

          A. They were mission schools, benevolent societies, arts and crafts, skilled farmers.

          B. Shared these skills with pagans.

5. Copies of Bible, commentaries, much writing done.

          A. Preserved many manuscripts.

          B. Identified many scrolls, dated them.


          Controversy on the Human Will

1. Pelagius vs. Augustine

          A. Pelagius - 370 - 440 - from British Isles, taught that:

                    [1] No original sin in man.

                    [2] Each person = free moral agent.

                    [3] Infant baptism usless.

                    [4] Man could live sinless, don't need Jesus unless you sin.  It is your choice.

          B. Augustine asserted that:

                    [1] All men inherit original sin from Adam.

                    [2] Man lost his freedom to choose.

                    [3] Infant baptism is necessary.

                    [4] Salvation is up to God alone.

                    [5] Many ideas of Augustine became the doctrine of John Calvin - Calvinism had its roots here.

2. Semi-Pelagians taught a combination of grace and works.

          A. Gal. 5:6  Faith that works by love.

          B. James 2:19-26

          C. Heb. 11:8  By faith Abraham obeyed



Chapter Thirteen

Theory and Organization of Roman Catholicism


The Theory of Romanism

1. All power and authority that Jesus had on earth has been transferred to the bishops of the church.

2. Apostolic succession from Peter.


          The Teaching Ministry of the Church

1. To teach the truth, one had to be properly ordained.

2. Separate clergy from laity.

3. Synods, councils made decisions that were binding.

4. Christianity - state religion, resist church = treason.


          The Priestly Function of the Church

1. Clergy were the mediators.

2. Only they could administer the sacraments.

3. Penance gave the priesthood power over the church.

          A. Similar to "prayer partners" in Boston movement.

          B. Confession to the priest was required.

                    [1] Used to control rebellion in church.

                    [2] Used to blackmail members.

4. Penance required:

          A. Confession of the sin.

          B. Satisfaction for the sin.

          C. Absolution of the sin.


          The Kingly Function of the Church

1. Make laws, judge guilt, administer punishment.

2. They were paid by the government.

3. They had the power of a government employee.


Organization of the Roman Church


          The Regular Priests

1. "Secular priest" worked with the people in a local congregation.

2. "Regular clergy" (from Latin regula) made the rules, wrote the regulations.

3. Wore different robes, colors, belts, etc.


          The Secular Clergy

1. Today, the preacher.

2. Worked with the people.  Prayed for the sick.  Preached thefunerals.  Hear confessions.  Perform marriages.


          Powers of Orders

1. Members of orders were granted special privileges:

          A. Exemption from taxes.

          B. Exemption from excommunication, except by Pope

          C. Permission to wear episopal ring and gloves

          D. Freedom from obligation to attend councils

2. They were ONLY under the Pope.  No one else had authority over members of an order.

3. By 1215, there were so many orders that the Pope ordered no new orders to be created.  He made exceptions for:

          A. Dominicans

          B. Franciscans.

          C. Reason:  Poverty Vows, not a financial drain on the church.  Preached.  Evangelistic.  Loyal to Pope.

4. Among the two divisons of orders there developed a logical sequence to work up from the bottom to the top.


          Powers of Jurisdiction

                    Parish Priest

                    Rural Dean

                    Vicar General



                    Papal Legate

                    The Pope


          Chart of Undenominationalism contrasted with Romanism


SEE: Chart on page 168 of the text book.



Chapter Fourteen

The Rise of Mohammedanism


1. A new Theocracy arose in Aribia.

2. Mohammed (570-632) - founder, prophet, military leader.

3. At age 40, (610) started a new religion called Islam - "submission to Allah."

4. Islam teaches:

          A. God, Allah, is one.  All powerful, wise, etc.

          B. All events are foreordained.

          C. Two classes of angels - good and bad.

          D. Scripture - Quran "Koran" and Sunna "traditions"

          E. Moses and Jesus were good prophets.  Moh. =greatest

          F. Soul is immortal.

          G. Paradise is gained by you life.  Good deeds.

          H. Good = prayers, fastings, giving alms, pilgrimage to Mecca.

                    [1] Death in war is best of all.

                    [2] Drop of blood in war- better than 2 months of fasting.

          I. Friday is their day of worship.

5. Moh. died in Medina in 632.






Chapter Fifteen

Sources of Support for the Papacy


          Papal Recognition by Secular Rulers

1. Many tribes claimed some form of Christianity.

2. Rome was broken down.  No world empire existed.

3. Only the clergy could read or write.

          A. Only monks in monastaries could read the Bible.

          B. Bible was available in Latin (dead language).

4. Constantine move the capital to Byzantium.

          A. This left Rome with a puppet ruler.

          B. Pope (Bishop of Rome) took over.

          C. Gained power over much of Europe.

5. Charlemagne was crowned (12/25/800) by Pope Leo III.  Leo said that he was "crowned by God."

          A. From this time on the rulers sought to strengthen the papacy.

          B. They gave it credibility and power.

6. Three theories - Pope and Emperor

          A. Both were equal - approved by God.

          B. Emperor was superior.  He could appoint Popes.

          C. Pope is superior.  Pope could appoint emperors.

7. The emperors won.  They appointed the Popes.

          A. Popes claimed they were vassels over God's world.

          B. But, only the emperor could grant them this power.

8. During 11th - 13th centuries - Feudalism.

          A. Large land owners.

          B. Vassels were overseerers of the land, managers.

          C. Peasents, slaves worked the land - share-croppers.


          Papal Support From False Documents


1. By the time of Innocent III (1198-1216) Popes were absolute power.

2. Isidore, head of Spanish church (c. 600-636).

          A. Bishop of Seville

          B. Wrote "Book of Sentences" - brief statements of doctrine.

3. Between 847 and 852 - forgeries were set out.

          A. Isidorian Decretals  (Now called Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals.

          B. It told of decisions of Popes from the first to the eighth centuries.

          C. "The Donation of Constantine" and other works were written to add prestige and power to the Pope.

                    [1] "The city of Rome and all provinces, districts, and cities of Italy or of the Western regions" were given to the Pope.

                    [2] This became known as The Vatican.

          D. It was not exposed as a forgery until the reformation movement.

4. There was a decline of imperial power and a rise of papal power.

5. Lack of knowledge, ability to read, kept people from knowing if it was genuine or not.


          Papal Support From Hierarchy

1. The Pope had two powers over the clergy:

          A. Excommunication - refuse sacraments, disfellowship

                    [1] Sever one's connection with the church.

                    [2] Became a social outcast to society.

                    [3] Submit to the Pope - or else!

          B. Interdict - force the ruler to change

                    [1] Priests would stop all sacraments.

                    [2] No baptisms, marriages, funerals.

                    [3] This pressured the ruler to repent.

2. This power was passed down the chain from Pope to Cardinals, Bishops, Priests -- to the people.

3. Monastic Orders were placed directly under the Pope.  This made them feel dependence on papal approval.

4. College of Cardinals (from 1059) have been Pope's representative in major territories.  They elect the next Pope from among themselves.


Chapter Sixteen

The Strong Popes


          Gregory I

1. Pope from 590 - 604.  First monk to be chosen Pope.

2. Established a far-reaching missionary campaign. England.  France.  Germany.

3. Started was are known as the "Gregorian chants".

          A. This a development of the liturgy of the worship.

          B. Many changes in the "Mass".

4. New doctrine -- Purgatory.

          A. Matt. 5:26 "can't come out till paid last farthing."

          B. I Cor. 3:11-15  Work shall be proved by fire.

          C. Purgatory became "essential to the faith."

          D. Out of this came taking communion for the dead.

                    [1] Take communion for many dead relatives.

                    [2] Many got drunk in this way.

                    [3] Church was providing them with free booze.

                    [4] Priest began taking the wine for all - living and the dead.


          Nicholas I

1. From Gregory I (604) till Nicholas I (858) there were 41 Popes.  None with power or success.

2. Nicolos I was Pope from 858 to 867.

3. He believed that the church was stronger, more powerful than any earthly empire.  The Pope is stronger than any temporal ruler.

4. His brute power was resented in the East.  This was the beginning of the East-West division.


          Benedict IX

1. Became Pope in 1033.

2. Created a scandal - was driven from office.  Sylvester III was appointed to replace Bendict IX.

3. Benedict IX still claimed that he was Pope.

4. Sold the office to Gregory VI.  Benedict changed his mind.  Still claimed he was Pope.  There were three men all claiming to be Pope at the same time.


          Innocent III

1. Pope from 1198 to 1216.

2. Philip Agustus of France - divorced wife, married another.  Pope ordered him to go back to first wife.

3. He refused and Pope place all of France under inderdict.  No church buildings were open.  No weddings, funerals or baptisms.  It worked!


          Boniface VIII

1. Pope from 1294 to 1303.

2. He wanted to be world-ruler.  France started taxing the clergy to pay for a war with England.  Pope issued "Clericis laicos" - excommunication to all who demanded taxes be paid by clergy.

3. Philip IV struck back.  Did not allow French money to leave France.  Pope did not get any money from France.

4. Boniface said that clergy could make donations if they wanted to.  Later, allowed the king to tax.

5. Issued a statement that the Pope was over all civil rulers.  "That is is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to teh Roman pontiff."


Chapter Seventeen

The Crusades

1. Many factors led to the Crusades.

          A. From 970 to 1040 - (70 yers) 48 years of famine.

          B. Worse yet 1085 -1095.

2. Misery of earth caused:

          A. Rise in ascetisism.

          B. Strong sense of desire to be in heaven.

          C. Greater religious zeal.

3. Moslem domination of Jerusalem.  Christians could not make pilgramages to "holy places."

4. Pope asked France to fight the Turks, drive them out of Palestine.  In exchange - those who died would be absolved of all sins.  They would go straight to heaven (not purgatory.)  Victors would get spoils.


          First Crusade

1. Began in 1094. Thru 1098.

2. Of 30 to 50,000 that started, 1/10 reached Jerusalem.

3. Set up feudal states to control Jerusalem.

4. Lasted until 1144.


          Second Crusade

1. 1147

2. Total failure.  Many killed.

3. Army reached Damascus, got discouraged, returned home.


          Third Crusade

1. Saladin unified the Moslems.  They re-took Jerusalem.

2. 1187 started the 3rd Crusade.

3. Fredrick was leader.  Died on the way.  Loss of leadership.  14 months - little progress.


          Fourth Crusade

1. 1202 - 1204.

2. Smaller in numbers in army.

3. Innocent III use dhte crusade to unite East and West.


          Fifth Crusade

1. Fredrick II in 1229.

2. Re-claimed Jerusalem and part of Palestine.

3. He allowed the Moslems to keep the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem.


          Children's Crusade

1. 1212

2. Two boys Stephen and Nicolas marched across France and Germany to Italy.  Gathered thousands of children.

3. Most were captured and sold into slavery in Egypt.



1. Later crusades were used, not to gain back holy land, but to supress any who questioned papal authority.

2. Albigenes - Albi, chief seat in France.

          A. New relations East-West resulted in new Manichaeism.

          B. See notes on page 16.

          C. Popes led attacks against "heresy."

3. They also led crusades against civil rulers whose policies were different than the Pope's.

4. Qualben (p. 172) lists some consequences of Crusades.

          A. Isolation was broken.  Christians had a common goal to overthrow the Moslems.

          B. Overthrow of Constantinople was delayed.  This gave time for the church to be established in Europe.

          C. Feudalism was undermined.

          D. Revival of trade, commerce and manufacturing.

          E. Stimulated intellectual life in Europe.

          F. Pope was strong ruler of Europe.

          G. Developed a spirit of intolerance.  Paved the way for the inquisition.

          H. Popular preaching was done by the Crusades.

          I. Stimulated intrest in relics, sacred places.  One found a spear, claimed it was the one that a roman used on Christ, the army rallied to keep going.



Chapter Eighteen

Opposition to the Papacy


          Opposition Groups

1. Little is known except that such groups did exist and tried to resist the rise of power in the papacy.

2. The church put down all such rebellion as heresy.


          Church Succession Through Opposition Groups

1. Ben M. Bogard - Baptist Succession.

2. Not necessary. Plant is in seed.  Don't have to know all the plants in the history of that seed.

3. Luke 8:11  Seed is the Word of God.  Plant seed.  Grow plant.  Bear fruit.


          The Catharists

1. Also known as Paulicans.  Also known as Arnoldians, Petrobusians, Albigneses and Waldenses.

2. Marks of these groups:

          A. Read Scripture in worship.

          B. Lord's Supper every Sunday.

          C. Refused infant baptism.

          D. Rejected all human creeds, human authority.

          E. Denounced the ignorance and vice of clergy.

3. They were usually some form of

          A. Gnostic

          B. Maicheans

          C. Believed that this world is evil.

                    [1] Ascetic.

                    [2] Marriage is wrong.

4. There was no larger sturcture.  All were different from each other.  This caused them to scatter and lack trust of each other.  All who differed were not true saints.


          Arnold of Brescia

1. Attacked the riches and temporal power of the Popes.

2. Was hanged.  Body burned.  Ashes scattered.


          Peter of Bruys

1. Radical preacher in France.

2. Taught strict ascetism.

3. Rejected infant baptism and Lord's Supper in any form.

4. Opposed all ceremonies and church buildings.

5. Opposed the use of crosses.  Should be condemned.  Not worshipped.

6. Taught against prayers for the dead.

7. Mob burned him around 1130.


          Peter Waldo and the Waldenses

1. Peter Waldo, wealthy merchant of Lyons.

2. Died around 1177.

3. The movement did not begin out of hostility.  Their intent was not to seperart from the chruch.  They were not schismatic.  They intended to carry out their program within the church.

4. Their program had the following five points:

          A. Church return to pure teaching of Scripture.

          B. There is no purgatory.

          C. The church is not infallible.

          D. Christian laymen are entitled to preach.

          E. Selling ones goods and giving the proceeds to the poor is an act of Christian consecration.

5. In 1179, two men were excommunicated and persecuted for their request to preach as laymen.


          The Albigenses

1. By 1200, southern France was filled with Catharists.

2. Very numerous around the city of Albi.

3. This religion was more Manichean than Christian.

4. This group was very "anti-church" in attitude.

5. Innocent III got the king of France to start a crusade against them.  Many (men, women and children) were killed.  It only suppressed the idea in France and Italy.  This crusade lasted 20 years (1209 - 1229).


          The Inquisition

1. One of the consequences of the Crusades was they "promoted a spirit of religious intolerance and pave the was for the Inquisition.  Popes proclaimed crusades, not only against Mohammedans, but also against heritics within the Roman fold." (Qualben, p. 172)

2. The Pope (Innocent III) called the Latern Council of 1215.  The issue:  [1] How to punish the heritics in the church.  [2] How to identify them.

3. Herasy was held as treason against God.  Herasy was therefore a greater crime that treson against a king.

4. The dominican monks were in charge of the Inquisition.

5. The purpose of the inquisitor was not to prove quilt.  His job was to force an admission of guilt.

6. Torture was often extreme.  If guilty - some form of terrible pennance was to be paid.  It not admit guilt - tortured until dead.

7. Inquisition went through France, Italy and worst was in Spain.

8. Some of these same methods were used in America to deal with the witches of Salem.

9. Catholics have justified the Inquisition as only against church members.  It is the job of the church to maintain its purity.


          The True Church

1. During this period of history a record of true believers is totally absent.  Part of the reason is the extreme hardship to be open or public about any differences one might have with the church.

2. Jesus promise that the gates of hell would not prevail against it.

3. Daniel said that it would stand forever, be an everlasting kingdom.


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